Newly 3000°C Ablative Ceramic Coating Successfully Developed - Multi-boron-containing Single-phase Carbide
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Boron carbide is also known as black Diamond. It has a molecular structure of B4C. The powder is typically grayish. It is one the three hardest materials known (the other two being diamond and cubic boronnitride). It can be found in many industrial applications, including tank armor, bodies, and body armor. It has a Mohs toughness of 9.3. A large number of tests were conducted by the team of Academician Huang Boyun of Central South University’s National Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy to develop a new ceramic coating and composite materials that are resistant to 3000°C ablation. This discovery could pave a way for hypersonic vehicle development.
According to Professor Xiong Xiang of the Institute of Powder Metallurgy of Central South University's Institute of Powder Metallurgy (IPM), hypersonic flight is defined as a flight speed that is at least 6120 km/h, or 5 times faster than the speed of the sound. With such high speeds, the flight between Beijing and New York could be completed in just 2 hours if the aircraft's key structural components can handle severe air friction as well as hot air impacts of 2000-3000 deg. C. . Central South University has developed ceramic composites and coatings for ultra-high temperatures that provide better protection of the above components. The world's very first synthesis of a single-phase quaternary boron carbide ultra-high-temperature ceramic material has been reported. It was made into a "coating", perfect "fusion" between carbon-carbon. In the field of developing new materials, mixed materials are studied in binary compound system. The successful application of materials quaternary to hypersonic will be greatly facilitated by its development.
The novel ceramic coated modified carbon/carbon material is composed by a single-phase carbide of zirconium (quarterary), titanium, carbon, and boron. It has a stable carbide-crystal structure. Infiltration of a multiceramic phase is the main method for obtaining it. The ultra high temperature ceramic combines high temperature adaptability carbides and anti-oxidation borides. This makes the coatings, composites and exhibit superior ablation and thermal shock resistance. The ceramic oxide can withstand an ultra-high temperature of 3000 degC and has low oxygen diffusion rates, self-healing properties at high temperatures, dense ceramic coatings, and gradient structures. It also exhibits a lower material content than other ceramic systems. Ablation loss rate.
"Because the ultra-high-temperature ceramic combines carbide's high temperature adaptability with boride's anti-oxidation property, the coatings and materials above have superior thermal shock resistance and ablation resistant, which are the keys to hypersonic vehicle. "The promising parts," said Xiong Xiang.
Nature Communications published on 15 June the results of research conducted by the team. The State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy of Central South University was the first completion unit of this thesis. Zeng Yi and Professor Xiong Xiang are the first correspondents. First author is the doctor. The University of Manchester (UK), a partner unit of the University of Manchester, UK characterized the material and performed an analysis.
After publication, the article attracted a great deal of interest from the foreign media and academic circles. In the three days immediately following publication, this article was downloaded over 5,000-times, while other articles were only downloaded 300 to 900-times. The Daily Mail in Britain, The Economist in the United States and Public Machinery (Russia) have all covered the research. . According to the reviewer in Nature Newsletter, the above research results "will ignite the academic excitement and interest in applying quaternary materials in hypersonic fields, because this material system represents a promising one."
The team began working with Professor Chang Xiang in 2002 with the help of the National 863 and 973, as well as the National Natural Science Foundation. They were led by a Yangtze River scholar, Professor Chang Xiang. Find a new ultra high temperature ceramic coating that has excellent oxidation resistance, and resistance to ablation. During the research, the material systems screened, from the initial silica carbide to strontium carbide (and then titanium carbide), zirconium carbonate, zirconium boreide, tantalum carbide and other hundreds of high temperature materials, involved almost all existing ultra-high-temperature ceramics and composites. It has taken 15 years to achieve the breakthrough of developing new ablation-resistant coatings in 3000 degC ultra high temperature environment.
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